Fritz Overbeck was born on September 15, 1869, in Bremen. Overbeck attended the Gymnasium and subsequently studied at the Academy of Art in Düsseldorf from 1889 until 1893. Through Otto Modersohn, Overbeck was introduced to the art colony of Worpswede. At this time, he painted scenes of desolate moorlands.
In 1897, Fritz Overbeck married his student Hermine Rothe. The couple lived together in Worpswede until 1905, but the growing numbers of visitors to the colony convinced Overbeck and his wife to leave the colony; they moved to Bröcken bei Vegesack, near Bremen. In his new home among the islands of the North Sea, Fritz Overbeck devoted his creativity to painting the beaches and dunes of the surrounding landscapes.
On June 7, 1909, the German painter Fritz Overbeck died in Bröcken.